National League for Nursing - Nursing Education Research
Descriptions of Available Instruments
The Simulation Design Scale (student version), a 20-item instrument using a five-point scale, was designed to evaluate the five design features of the instructor-developed simulations used in the NLN/Laerdal study. The five design features include: 1) objectives/information; 2) support; 3) problem solving; 4) feedback; 5) fidelity. The instrument has two parts: one asks about the presence of specific features in the simulation, the other asks about the importance of those features to the learner.
Content validity was established by ten content experts in simulation development and testing. The instrument's reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha, which was found to be 0.92 for presence of features, and 0.96 for the importance of features.
Educational Practices Questionnaire (student version), a 16-item instrument using a five-point scale, was designed to measure whether four educational practices (active learning, collaboration, diverse ways of learning, and high expectations) are present in the instructor-developed simulation, and the importance of each practice to the learner.
The educational practices were derived from the work of Chickering and Gamson (1987). Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. Presence of specific practices = 0.86; importance of specific practices = 0.91
Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning, a 13-item instrument designed to measure student satisfaction (five items) with the simulation activity and self-confidence in learning (eight items) using a five-point scale. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha: satisfaction = 0.94; self-confidence = 0.87
Note: More large valid studies are still needed, along with analyses of how these instruments correlate with other available tools and commonly used scales.
Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, A.F., (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation, Inc./Wingspread.
Click here to view sample items from each instrument (PDF).
Read the NLN/Laerdal Project Summary Report (PDF).
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